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However, oil production levels remain below the average pre-Revolution highs of 1. 6 million barrels per day. The Central Bank of Libya continued to pay government salaries to a majority of the Libyan workforce and to fund subsidies for fuel and food, resulting in an estimated budget deficit of about 17% of GDP in 2017. Low consumer confidence in the banking sector and the economy as a whole has driven a severe liquidity shortage. GDP (purchasing power parity)$125. 783 billion (2019 est. )$124. 485 billion (2018 est.

88 yearsfemale: 78. 36 years (2021 est. )total population: 76. 93 yearsmale: 74. 68 yearsfemale: 79. 29 years (2021 est. ) Total fertility rate2. 03 children born/woman (2021 est. 13 children born/woman (2021 est. ) HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate<. 1% (2020 est. )0. 1% (2020) Nationalitynoun: Tunisian(s)adjective: Tunisiannoun: Libyan(s)adjective: Libyan Ethnic groupsArab 98%, European 1%, Jewish and other 1%Berber and Arab 97%, other 3% (includes Egyptian, Greek, Indian, Italian, Maltese, Pakistani, Tunisian, and Turkish) HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS4, 500 (2020 est.

615 billion cubic meters (2017 est. )700 million cubic meters (2017 est. ) Population distributionthe overwhelming majority of the population is located in the northern half of the country; the south remains largely underpopulated as shown in this population distribution mapwell over 90% of the population lives along the Mediterranean coast in and between Tripoli to the west and Al Bayda to the east; the interior remains vastly underpopulated due to the Sahara and lack of surface water as shown in this population distribution map Demographics Population11, 811, 335 (July 2021 est.

Despite continuing unrest, Libya remains a destination country for economic migrants. It is also a hub for transit migration to Europe because of its proximity to southern Europe and its lax border controls. Labor migrants have been drawn to Libya since the development of its oil sector in the 1960s. Until the latter part of the 1990s, most migrants to Libya were Arab (primarily Egyptians and Sudanese). However, international isolation stemming from Libya's involvement in international terrorism and a perceived lack of support from Arab countries led QADHAFI in 1998 to adopt a decade-long pan-African policy that enabled large numbers of Sub-Saharan migrants to enter Libya without visas to work in the construction and agricultural industries.

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Washington@Tunisiaembassy. orghttps://www. tunisianembassy. org/chief of mission: Ambassador Wafa M. T. BUGHAIGHIS (since 29 November 2017)chancery: 1460 Dahlia Street NW, Washington, DC 20012telephone: [1] (202) 944-9601FAX: [1] (202) 944-9606email address and website: info@embassyoflibyadc. comhttps://www. embassyoflibyadc. org/ Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Donald A. BLOME (since 7 February 2019)embassy: Les Berges du Lac, 1053 Tunismailing address: 6360 Tunis Place, Washington DC 20521-6360telephone: [216] 71-107-000FAX: [216] 71-107-090email address and website: tunisacs@state.

govhttps://tn. usembassy. gov/chief of mission: Ambassador Richard B. NORLAND (since 22 August 2019)embassy: Sidi Slim Area/Walie Al-Ahed Road, Tripoli (temporarily closed)mailing address: 8850 Tripoli Place, Washington, DC 20521-8850telephone: [216] 71-107-000email address and website: LibyaACS@state. govhttps://ly. gov/note: the US Embassy in Tripoli closed in July 2014 due to fighting near the embassy related to Libyan civil unrest; embassy staff and operations temporarily first relocated to Valetta, Malta and currently are temporarily relocated to Tunis, Tunisia Flag descriptionred with a white disk in the center bearing a red crescent nearly encircling a red five-pointed star; resembles the Ottoman flag (red banner with white crescent and star) and recalls Tunisia's history as part of the Ottoman Empire; red represents the blood shed by martyrs in the struggle against oppression, white stands for peace; the crescent and star are traditional symbols of Islamnote: the flag is based on that of Turkey, itself a successor state to the Ottoman Empirethree horizontal bands of red (top), black (double width), and green with a white crescent and star centered on the black stripe; the National Transitional Council reintroduced this flag design of the former Kingdom of Libya (1951-1969) on 27 February 2011; it replaced the former all-green banner promulgated by the QADHAFI regime in 1977; the colors represent the three major regions of the country: red stands for Fezzan, black symbolizes Cyrenaica, and green denotes Tripolitania; the crescent and star represent Islam, the main religion of the country National anthemname: "Humat Al Hima" (Defenders of the Homeland)lyrics/music: Mustafa Sadik AL-RAFII and Aboul-Qacem ECHEBBI/Mohamad Abdel WAHABnote: adopted 1957, replaced 1958, restored 1987; Mohamad Abdel WAHAB also composed the music for the anthem of the United Arab Emiratesname: Libya, Libya, Libyalyrics/music: Al Bashir AL AREBI/Mohamad Abdel WAHABnote: also known as "Ya Beladi" or "Oh, My Country! "; adopted 1951; readopted 2011 with some modification to the lyrics; during the QADHAFI years between 1969 and 2011, the anthem was "Allahu Akbar, " (God is Great) a marching song of the Egyptian Army in the 1956 Suez War International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdictionhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICC National symbol(s)encircled red crescent moon and five-pointed star; national colors: red, whitestar and crescent, hawk; national colors: red, black, green Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: nocitizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Tunisiadual citizenship recognized: yesresidency requirement for naturalization: 5 yearscitizenship by birth: nocitizenship by descent only: at least one parent or grandparent must be a citizen of Libyadual citizenship recognized: noresidency requirement for naturalization: varies from 3 to 5 years Economy Economy - overviewTunisia's economy - structurally designed to favor vested interests - faced an array of challenges exposed by the 2008 global financial crisis that helped precipitate the 2011 Arab Spring revolution.

Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and writetotal population: 81. 8%male: 89. 6%female: 74. 2% (2015)definition: age 15 and over can read and writetotal population: 91%male: 96. 7%female: 85. 6% (2015) Education expenditures6. 6% of GDP (2015)NA Urbanizationurban population: 69. 9% of total population (2021)rate of urbanization: 1. 34% annual rate of change (2020-25 est. )urban population: 81% of total population (2021)rate of urbanization: 1. 45% annual rate of change (2020-25 est. ) Drinking water sourceimproved: urban: 100% of populationrural: 94. 3% of populationtotal: 98.

The Libyan dinar has lost much of its value since 2014 and the resulting gap between official and black market exchange rates has spurred the growth of a shadow economy and contributed to inflation. The country suffers from widespread power outages, caused by shortages of fuel for power generation. Living conditions, including access to clean drinking water, medical services, and safe housing have all declined since 2011. Oil production in 2017 reached a five-year high, driving GDP growth, with daily average production rising to 879, 000 barrels per day.

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21% (male 534, 245/female 513, 728)25-54 years: 41. 57% (male 1, 491, 461/female 1, 373, 086)55-64 years: 5. 52% (male 186, 913/female 193, 560)65 years and over: 4. 04% (male 129, 177/female 149, 526) (2020 est. ) Median agetotal: 32. 7 yearsmale: 32 yearsfemale: 33. 3 years (2020 est. )total: 25. 8 yearsmale: 25.

During the 1970s, QADHAFI used oil revenues to promote his ideology outside Libya, supporting subversive and terrorist activities that included the downing of two airliners - one over Scotland, another in Northern Africa - and a discotheque bombing in Berlin. UN sanctions in 1992 isolated QADHAFI politically and economically following the attacks; sanctions were lifted in 2003 following Libyan acceptance of responsibility for the bombings and agreement to claimant compensation. QADHAFI also agreed to end Libya's program to develop weapons of mass destruction, and he made significant strides in normalizing relations with Western nations. Unrest that began in several Middle Eastern and North African countries in late 2010 erupted in Libyan cities in early 2011. QADHAFI's brutal crackdown on protesters spawned a civil war that triggered UN authorization of air and naval intervention by the international community.

Libya's 2011 revolution decreased immigration drastically and prompted nearly 800, 000 migrants to flee to third countries, mainly Tunisia and Egypt, or to their countries of origin. The inflow of migrants declined in 2012 but returned to normal levels by 2013, despite continued hostility toward Sub-Saharan Africans and a less-inviting job market. While Libya is not an appealing destination for migrants, since 2014, transiting migrants - primarily from East and West Africa - continue to exploit its political instability and weak border controls and use it as a primary departure area to migrate across the central Mediterranean to Europe in growing numbers.

In September 2017, UN Special Representative Ghassan SALAME announced a new roadmap for national political reconciliation. SALAME's plan called for amendments to the LPA, a national conference of Libyan leaders, and a constitutional referendum and general elections. In November 2018, the international partners supported SALAME's recalibrated Action Plan for Libya that aimed to break the political deadlock by holding a National Conference in Libya in 2019 on a timeline for political transition. The National Conference was delayed following a failure of the parties to implement an agreement mediated by SALAME in Abu Dhabi on February 27, and the subsequent military action by Khalifa HAFTAR's Libyan National Army against GNA forces in Tripoli that began in April 2019.

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Tunis is seeking increased foreign investment and working with the IMF through an Extended Fund Facility agreement to fix fiscal deficiencies. Libya's economy, almost entirely dependent on oil and gas exports, has struggled since 2014 given security and political instability, disruptions in oil production, and decline in global oil prices.

6% (2018)11. 7% (2014) Physicians density1. 3 physicians/1, 000 population (2017)2. 09 physicians/1, 000 population (2017) Hospital bed density2. 2 beds/1, 000 population (2017)3. 2 beds/1, 000 population (2017) Obesity - adult prevalence rate26. 9% (2016)32. 5% (2016) Demographic profileThe Tunisian Government took steps in the 1960s to decrease population growth and gender inequality in order to improve socioeconomic development.

North Africa (Tunisia, Libya, Morocco, Egypt, Algeria) Switzerland's actions in development cooperation in North Africa (Egypt, Tunisia, Morocco,

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